What We Do: Sadaka Publications
Israel's Illegal Regime of Apartheid
Overview: It is now widely recognised that Israel has developed a system of apartheid in the territory it controls between the river Jordan and the Mediterranean Sea as well as for the Palestinian refugee population.
Click on cover to download the full Briefing. March 2022, PDF 133 kB.
A Different Kind of School Run.
Overview: Israeli forces, private security guards, and settlers launched an average of 10 attacks per month on West Bank kindergarten and school students, staff and facilities between January 2018 and June 2020. Israel has a responsibility to protect children and teachers from harassment and violence by illegal settlers and military on their way to and from school. The protection of children in accordance with international law should be paramount for any country.
Click on cover to download the full Briefing. August 2021, PDF 407 kB.
Annexation: Sadaka submission to the Oireachtas Joint Committee on Foreign Affairs and Defence, 11 May 2021.
Overview: Israel has displayed a pattern of behaviour and actions which are consistent with annexation. These actions are not consistent with any intention to respect the right to self-determination of the Palestinian people; they are clearly not temporary, nor are they taken in good faith. There is no conclusion that can be drawn other than that the settlements are clearly intended to be a core component of the Israeli state.
Click on cover to download the full Briefing. May 2021, PDF 622 kB.
Annexation of the West Bank: It Has Already Happened.
Overview: Annexation has featured prominently in recent months in the news in relation to Palestine and Israel. This followed the conclusion of a coalition agreement between Israel’s two largest parties (Likud and the Blue and White party) which included a commitment to annex the West Bank.
Click on cover to download the full Briefing. September 2020, PDF 198 kB.
Occupied Territories Bill.
Sadaka Analysis of AG opinion
Click on cover to download the full Briefing. June 2020, PDF 107 kB.
Occupied Territories Bill: Update (May 2020).
Click on cover to download the full Briefing. May 2020, PDF 263 kB.
The Control of Economic Activity (Occupied Territories) Bill 2018. What is it and what will it achieve?
Overview: The Control of Economic Activity (Occupied Territories) Bill 2018 is proposed legislation which, when enacted, will result in a complete ban on the import of goods and services produced in illegal Israeli settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (the West Bank). Click on cover to download the full Briefing. February 2020, PDF 263 kB.
Money Message: Application to the Occupied Territories Bill Overview: Update: Following the passage of the Occupied Territories Bill by Seanad Eireann in December 2018, in January 2019 Dáil Éireann voted overwhelmingly by 78 votes to 45 in support of the Bill at “second stage” i.e. the stage at which TDs debate the principle of the Bill. Three Government Ministers abstained from the vote, refusing to support the Government’s opposition to the Bill. Without the votes to defeat it, the Government, which opposes the Bill, is now seeking to block its progress by withholding what is called a "Money Message." (Click on cover to download the full Briefing) September 2019, PDF 111 kB.
The Occupied Territories Bill and the Money Message: An Explainer Overview: The Government is effectively claiming, in withholding a Money Message, that the State cannot afford to implement the Occupied Territories Bill. This is an absurd position and an abuse of the democratic process, bearing in mind the fact that the Bill has been passed by the Seanad and approved at Second Stage in the Dáil by 78 votes to 46. (Click on cover to download the full Briefing) July 2019, PDF 150 kB.
50 years of Israeli occupation: The roadblock to peace Overview: (Click on cover to download the full Briefing) May 2016, PDF 124 kB.
One Page Briefings for the Election 2016 Campaign
Formally recognise the State of Palestine NOW;
Seek an EU ban on trade and investment with Israeli colonies/settlements;
Campaign for an end to the Israeli blockade of Gaza;
End arms deals with Israel;
Require Israel to protect Palestinian children;
Israel: EU Losing Sight Of The Facts Overview: While the state of Israel continues its colonial project in the Occupied Palestinian Territories with its relentless settlement expansion, its shoot-to-kill policy and its arrest and detention of minors, the EU and other international players continue to ignore the basic facts of the situation in Palestine and Israel, for instance, that without sanctions against Israel to force it to withdraw from the occupied Palestinian territories, the two-state solution is dead. (Click on cover to download the full Briefing) January 2016, PDF 189 kB.
Without sanctions against Israel, the "two-state solution" is dead Overview: The "two-state solution" is dead unless serious and sustained economic sanctions are applied to Israel by the international community to force it to withdraw from the Occupied Palestinian Territories so that a Palestinian state can be established. It is a fantasy to believe that Israel can be persuaded to withdraw from these territories it occupies by negotiations alone, as the EU (and the Irish Government) appear to believe. (Click on cover to download the full Briefing) September 2015, PDF 96 kB.
A little legal restraint on Israel at last? Overview: Palestine has become a party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court and accepted its jurisdiction in Palestinian territories. There is now a peaceful legal means of applying pressure on Israel to cease its colonisation of Palestinian territory. This is because under Article 8.2(b)(viii) of the Rome Statute "the transfer, directly or indirectly, by the Occupying Power of parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies" is defined to be a war crime. For the first time since 1967, when Israel’s military occupation began, there is a possibility of some legal restraint on Israel’s actions in the territories it occupies. (Click on cover to download the full Briefing) March 2015, PDF 96 kB.
Palestine and the International Criminal Court Overview: On 2 January 2015, Palestine applied to become a party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC) and on 6 January 2015, Ban Ki-moon, announced that the Rome Statute "will enter into force for the State of Palestine on April 1, 2015". The Palestinian leadership took this step despite enormous pressure being put on them not to do so by the US and the EU (and by Israel). The Rome Statute defines offences – war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide – for which individuals can be prosecuted by the ICC. Individuals who commit one of these offences in Palestinian territories can now be charged, tried and punished by the ICC. (Click on cover to download the full Briefing) March 2015, PDF 112 kB.
Why Ireland should recognise Palestine NOW Overview: For Ireland to recognise the State of Palestine now would be a powerful reaffirmation of its commitment to self-determination for the Palestinian people and to a two-state solution at a time when it is in danger of being killed off by Israel’s relentless settlement expansion. (Click on cover to download the full Briefing) December 2014, PDF 76 kB.
FAQs Recognition of the State of Palestine Overview: For Ireland to recognise the State of Palestine now would be a powerful reaffirmation of its commitment to self-determination for the Palestinian people and to a two-state solution at a time when it is in danger of being killed off by Israel’s relentless settlement expansion. (Click on cover to download the full Briefing) December 2014, PDF 76 kB.
The EU's responsibility for the Gaza tragedy Overview: For many years, the EU has said that Israel’s economic blockade of Gaza should be ended, most recently in European Council conclusions on 22 July 2014. But it has done nothing concrete to put pressure on Israel to bring it about – or to restrain Israel from periodically engaging in murderous military assaults on Gaza. The EU bears a heavy responsibility for the tragedy that is Gaza today. (Click on cover to download the full Briefing) September 2014, PDF 111 kB.
Will Israel implement THIS agreement with Hamas? Overview: A ceasefire agreement between Israel and Hamas, brokered by Egypt, was reached on 26 August 2014. This is the third such agreement that Hamas has negotiated with Israel in the past seven years. The previous two (in June 2008 and November 2012) came to nothing because, unlike Hamas, Israel failed to fulfil its obligations under them – and the international community turned a blind eye to its failure. Had Israel kept its side of the bargain in either agreement, rocket and mortar out of Gaza would most likely have ceased permanently. The question is: will Israel fulfil its obligations under this third agreement? (Click on cover to download the full Briefing) (August 2014, PDF 82 kB)
Will Israel implement an agreement with Hamas? History suggests NO. Overview: Israel’s last military offensive against Gaza in November 2012 ended with an agreement between Israel and Hamas brokered by Egypt. Under it, both sides were required to cease hostilities and Israel undertook to take steps towards ending its blockade of Gaza. But, Israel failed to fulfil its obligations under it, whereas Hamas fulfilled its obligations to the letter for more than eighteen months – and the international community turned a blind eye to Israel’s failure. The lesson from this is that the international community must ensure that Israel fulfils its obligations in any future agreement with Hamas. (Click on cover to download the full Briefing) (August 2014, PDF 150kb)
Gaza: Nobody needed to die Overview: Israel is currently engaged in its third military offensive against Gaza since 2008, ostensibly to bring a halt to rocket and mortar fire out of Gaza into Israel. There was no need for this offensive – or for the previous two offensives – for Israel to achieve that objective. Nobody, neither Israeli nor Palestinian, needed to die in order to bring a halt to rocket and mortar fire out of Gaza. All Israel needed to do was to stick to agreements it made with Hamas. But it didn’t. (Click on cover to download the full Briefing) July 2014, PDF 96 kB
The Government should tell Israel: No more collective punishment, apply the rule of law Overview: On 12 June, three Israeli teenagers were abducted and killed near Hebron while hitchhiking home from a Jewish settlement in the West Bank. At least 9 Palestinian civilians have died as a result of the Israeli offensive launched to find the teenagers, which has been largely directed against Hamas, whom Israel blames for the killings. Prime Minister Netanyahu has vowed to “make Hamas pay”, which chillingly raises the possibility of a third military assault on Gaza and the deaths of hundreds of Palestinian civilians, as happened in Operation Cast Lead in 2008/9 and Operation Pillar of Cloud in 2012. Israel needs to be told: no more collective punishment. (July 2014, PDF 96 kB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
Israel's Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs)- Briefing Overview: Israel isn’t a party to any of the three "weapons of mass destruction" treaties: (1) the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), (2) the Biological Weapons Convention, and (3) the Chemical Weapons Convention. It is the only state in the Middle East that isn’t a party to any of them. Iran is a party to all three, as are most other states in the Middle East. (May 2014, PDF 80 kB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
EU takes action on Israeli settlements Overview: The European Union is taking a number of measures against Israeli settlements in the territories occupied by Israel since 1967, that is, the Golan Heights, the West Bank including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip: (A) Steps to ensure that EU funds do not go to support activities in the settlements. (B) An EU-wide labelling scheme for settlement goods. (C) Guidance for EU citizens and enterprises about the risks associated with economic and financial involvement in the settlements. (July 2013, PDF 119 kB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
Palestinian state recognised by UN Overview: On 29 November 2012, Palestine won an historic victory at the UN when the General Assembly voted by an overwhelming majority – 138 in favour to 9 against, with 41 abstentions – to recognise Palestine as a state in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and Gaza, the territories occupied by Israel since 1967. It has now got observer rights as a “non-member state” at the UN and can apply for membership of UN associated bodies. It may also become a party to the International Criminal Court and individuals responsible for crimes against humanity or war crimes in the occupied territories may be indicted and tried by the Court. (December 2012, PDF 136 kB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
Gaza: Why did 3,000 Palestinians have to die? Overview: Ceasefire arrangements, brokered by Egyptian intelligence, brought the latest Israeli military assault on Gaza to an end on 21 November 2012. These arrangements are essentially the same as those brokered by Egyptian intelligence over four years ago in June 2008, as a result of which southern Israel was almost entirely free from firing out of Gaza for the following four and a half months. If Israel had wished, these ceasefire arrangements – and the peace and quiet they brought to southern Israel – could have continued indefinitely. However, Israel chose to bring this peaceful situation to an end by making a military incursion into Gaza on 4 November 2008 and killing 7 members of Hamas. Since then, Israel has mounted two murderous assaults on Gaza (Operation Cast Lead in 2008/9 and Operation Pillar of Cloud in November 2012), ostensibly to prevent firing out of Gaza, neither of which was as effective at doing that as the 2008 ceasefire arrangements, which Israel abrogated on 4 November 2008. (December 2012, PDF 161 kB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
Ireland may propose an EU ban on settlement goods Overview: Ireland may propose an EU ban on settlement goods in the autumn, Foreign Minister, Eamon Gilmore, told Dáil Éireann on 22 May 2012. He was reporting on the outcome of the EU Foreign Affairs Council a week earlier, which made unprecedented criticism of Israel’s ongoing actions in East Jerusalem and Area C, in particular, settlement building and the forcing out of Palestinians. This briefing discusses the Council’s conclusions and the reports by the EU heads of mission to Palestine, which contributed to these conclusions. (June 2012, PDF 103 kB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
Without external pressure on Israel, a Palestinian state is unattainable Overview: In July 2011, Eamon Gilmore, Minister of Foreign Affairs & Trade, stated: "The continuing Israeli military occupation of the Palestinian territories is at the heart of the unresolved Arab-Israeli conflict. … It is the continuing occupation, and the creation and growth of illegal settlements on the occupied lands, which are now the major obstacles to peace." This briefing asks the question: how can these obstacles be eliminated, so that a sovereign Palestinian state can come into being? We conclude that they will not be eliminated simply by direct negotiations between Israel and Palestinians. They will only be eliminated by external pressure on Israel to cease settlement building and end the occupation. Absent that pressure from the US and/or EU, the two political entities that have leverage over Israel, in our view a sovereign Palestinian state is unattainable. (June 2012, PDF 137 kB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
Israel is a rogue state Overview: Israel is a rogue state which treats with contempt its obligations under international law and agreements it has signed. It has occupied militarily large swathes of territory not its own for more than forty years – the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, Gaza and the Syrian Golan Heights. It has annexed East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights. Not only that, it has planted more than 500,000 Jewish settlers on this territory, with the clear intention of holding on to some or all of it permanently. This record of military occupation, annexation and colonisation for more than four decades is unrivalled in the world. Not only that, it holds the world record for violating Security Council resolutions that require action by it and it alone. (January 2012, PDF 111 kB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
Political Developments in 2011 Overview: The Fine Gael/Labour coalition, which came to power in February 2011, with Labour leader, Eamon Gilmore, as Tánaiste and Minister of Foreign Affairs & Trade, has moved Irish policy towards Palestine forward significantly in three respects: 1) singled out Israel’s military occupation and colonisation of Palestinian territories as the root of the problem in the Middle East. 2) committed Ireland to voting for UN membership for Palestine in the UN General Assembly and 3) committed Ireland to support an EU ban on the import of settlement goods. (January 2012, PDF 111 kB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
Palestine wins UNESCO membership Overview: Palestine won UNESCO membership by 107 votes to 14, only 12 out of the 194 members siding with the US and Israel in opposing. As a result, the US has halted funding to UNESCO – existing US legislation compelled it to do so. It is doubtful if the US Congress will amend the legislation to enable funding to be resumed. If it isn’t, after two years the US will lose its voting rights in the organisation. If Palestine wins membership in other UN-related organisations, then the same thing will happen in them. (December 2011, PDF 142 kB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
Ireland supports EU ban on settlement goods Overview: Irish Foreign Minister, Eamon Gilmore, has confirmed in Dáil Éireann that Ireland is committed to banning the import of settlement produce into the EU and is seeking to persuade member states to adopt this as EU policy. (November 2011, PDF 99 kB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
The Palestinian UN Initiative Overview: This briefing describes the progress of the Palestinians’ UN initiative, which seeks UN membership for a Palestinian state in the 1967 borders, with Jerusalem as its capital, that is, in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip – the Palestinian territories which have been under Israeli military occupation since June 1967. (November 2011, PDF 137 kB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
Ireland's position on the recognition of a Palestinian state Overview: Summary of the publicly stated position of the Irish Government on the recognition of a Palestinian state in the 1967 borders as of 5 September 2011. (September 2011, PDF 103 kB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
Steps to UN membership for Palestine Overview: In September, Palestinians intend to apply for UN membership for a Palestinian state in the 1967 borders, that is, in Gaza and the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, the Palestinian territories under Israeli military occupation since 1967. It is expected that the US will veto the membership application in the Security Council and the application will fail. However, Palestinians are confident that they will succeed in enhancing their status at the UN in the autumn by being granted observer rights as a "non-member state". This requires a simple majority in the UN General Assembly and cannot be blocked by the US. (August 2011, PDF 112 kB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
Why Ireland should support UN membership for a Palestinian state Overview: Palestinians are seeking the ultimate form of international recognition for a Palestinian state in the 1967 borders, that is, UN membership. An application for UN membership must first be recommended by the Security Council, where it may be subject to a US veto, and then approved by General Assembly by a two-thirds majority. We in Sadaka believe that Ireland should vote for UN membership in the General Assembly in order to put pressure on Israel to withdraw to the 1967 borders. This briefing gives our reasons. (June 2011, PDF 127 kB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
The Goldstone Report does not need correction Overview: Judge Goldstone, who headed the UN investigation into Israel’s military assault on Gaza in December 2008/January 2009, has implied that the investigation’s report needs substantial correction because new information has come to light. Professor Christine Chinkin, Hina Jilani and Colonel Desmond Travers, who worked with him on the investigation and co-wrote its report, do not share his view. In fact, he questioned the report’s conclusions about only one out of the thirty-six incidents investigated. (April 2011, PDF 131 kB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
The EU and Israel Overview: In December 2009, the EU adopted a set of conclusions on the Middle East, which were rightly regarded as a firming up of EU policy towards Israel. But firm policy is no use without the will to put it into effect, by imposing sanctions on Israel, if necessary. (March 2011, PDF 154 kB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
Is Hamas opposed to a two-state solution? Overview: Israel and its allies say repeatedly that Hamas is committed to the destruction of Israel and opposed to a "two-state solution". This briefing shows that Hamas has stated on many occasions that it is prepared to accept a Palestinian state in the 1967 borders, if Israel withdrew to those borders. Unfortunately, Israel shows no inclination to so that. (March 2011, PDF 106 kB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
Is Iran a threat to Israel's existence? Overview: Israel and its allies assert that Iran is a threat to the existence of the Israeli state, that the Islamic regime in Iran is akin to Nazi Germany and President Ahmadinejad is a modern Hitler. After all, didn’t he threaten to “wipe Israel off the map”? This briefing questions the validity of this narrative. (March 2011, PDF 147 kB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
Ireland should recognise a Palestinian state in the 1967 borders Overview: In November 1988, the PLO declared the establishment of a Palestinian state in the 1967 borders, that is, in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and Gaza. With this declaration, Palestinians accepted the objective of a state on just 22% of their historic homeland, with Israel continuing to exist in the other 78%. More than 100 states in the world recognised it and granted it full diplomatic relations. Other states, including Ireland, while not going as far as recognition, established some form of diplomatic relations with it. Recently, the PLO has renewed its recognition campaign, with a view to taking the matter to the UN in September 2011, and has had great success in Latin America. Sadaka believes that Ireland should take a lead in the EU in this matter and, as soon as possible, recognise a Palestinian state in the 1967 borders. (Feb 2011, PDF 230 kB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
Obama's 'new beginning' at an end in the Arab world? Overview: An opinion poll conducted in 6 Arab countries in July 2010 showed a precipitous drop in the approval rating of President Obama and his administration, compared with a year earlier, and a dramatic rise in approval for Iran acquiring nuclear weapons. (Sept 2010, PDF 104 kB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
The blockade of Gaza must be ended – completely. Overview: As Israel promised in the Agreement on Movement & Access, the crossings between Israel and Gaza must operate continuously, not just when Israel takes the notion to open them and not just for the transfer of the goods that Israel decides. (4 June 2010, PDF 255kB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
Israel's bogus excuses for piracy Overview: Israel claims it had compelling reasons for hijacking the Free Gaza ships in international waters and killing, wounding and kidnapping their passengers. All of them are bogus. (2 June 2010, PDF 528kB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
UN Security Council resolutions contravened by Israel Overview: Israel is contravening over 30 UN Security Council resolutions, dating back to 1968, resolutions that require action by it and it alone. If Israel had implemented these resolutions, as it should have done as a member of the United Nations, it would have removed all of the Jewish settlements in the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and reversed its annexation of East Jerusalem and the Syrian Golan Heights. (PDF 989kB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
The Israel - Hamas Ceasefire Overview: Operation Cast Lead, Israel’s military assault on Gaza which began on 27 December 2008, cost the lives of more than 1,400 Palestinians, including over 400 women and children. 13 Israelis, including 3 civilians, also died. None of this carnage was necessary in order to protect Israeli citizens from rocket and mortar fire out of Gaza, as Israel claimed in justification for its action. This problem had been solved by the ceasefire arrangements Israel made with Hamas, as a result of which Hamas fired no rockets or mortars out of Gaza from 19 Jun 2008 until 4 November 2008 – when Israel broke the ceasefire. (March 2010, PDF 1.9MB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
International Court of Justice Ruling on the Wall Overview: On 7 July 2004, the International Court of Justice declared Israel’s construction of the Wall in the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) to be "contrary to international law" and ordered Israel to remove it. It has refused to comply with this ruling. (Apr 2010, PDF 271Kb. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
The Road Map Overview: In May 2003, Israel accepted the Road Map as the framework for negotiating with Palestinians about a "two-state solution". Under it, Israel was supposed to freeze all settlement activity prior to the start of negotiations. It has refused to do so. (March 2010, PDF 1.1M. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
The Agreement on Movement and Access Overview: Israel’s obligations to the people of Gaza under the 4th Geneva Convention and the Agreement on Movement and Access: This Agreement, which Israel signed in November 2005, set out arrangements that were to operate for the passage of people and goods in and out of Gaza, in the wake of Israel’s “disengagement”. The arrangements included continuous opening of the crossings between Israel and Gaza, bus and truck convoys between Gaza and the West Bank and a functioning airport and seaport in Gaza. (Mar 2010, PDF 1.1M. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
Israel's contraventions of the UN Charter Overview: Article 2.4 of the UN Charter prohibits UN members from using force or the threat of force. Throughout its existence as a state, Israel has contravened this Article of the UN Charter on many occasions. (Mar 2010, PDF 1.9MB. Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
The historic wrong against the Palestinian people Overview: The Jewish colonisation of Palestine in the 20th Century, backed by Britain as promised in the Balfour Declaration, has brought endless suffering to the Arab people of Palestine and deprived them of the enjoyment of their land. A settlement in Palestine requires a recognition that an historic wrong has been done to the Arab people of Palestine and that appropriate redress has to be made. (Dec 2009, PDF 5.4MB Click on cover to download the full Briefing)
Correspondence with the Israeli Embassy about UN Resolutions Overview: Correspondence with the Israeli Embassy about UN ResolutionsOverview: Israel is contravening over 30 UN Security Council resolutions, dating back to 1968, resolutions that require action by it and it alone. Here, you can read Israel’s feeble attempts to defend its failure to implement these resolutions. (Jan 2003, PDF 578kB Click on cover to download the full Briefing)